Zinc oxide and zinc oxide-based nanostructures: biogenic and phytogenic synthesis, properties and applications


Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered as very significant and essential material due to its multifunctional properties, stability, low cost and wide usage. Many green and biogenic approaches for ZnO NPs synthesis have been reported using various sources such as plants and microorganisms. Plants contain biomolecules that can act as capping, oxidizing and reducing agents that increase the rate of reaction and stabilizes the NPs. This review emphasizes and compiles different types of plants and parts of plant used for the synthesis of ZnO and its potential applications at one place. The influence of biogenic and phytogenic synthesized ZnO on its properties and possible mechanisms for its fabrication has been discussed. This review also highlights the potential applications and future prospects of phytogenic synthesized ZnO in the field of energy production and storage, sun light harvesting, environmental remediation, and biological applications.

Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering