PhaseKinetics for assessing the compositional evolution of petroleum generated from the early to Late Miocene source rock, Belait Formation, Brunei-Muara district, Brunei Darussalam


The Early to Late Miocene Belait Formation in Brunei-Muara district has been investigated using the PhaseKinetic approach for compositional petroleum generation kinetics. The source rock characteristics of the selected coal and coaly shale samples indicate kerogen type III-II and type III with moderate HI recorded in the range of 156–258 mg HC/g TOC. The Rock Eval pyrolysis data also show immature organic matter with maximum recorded Tmax values of 415 °C. Pyrolysis gas chromatography (PyGC) reflects that the source rocks generated petroleum grading from paraffinic-naphthenic-aromatic (P–N-A) high wax to gas and condensate, which can be interpreted as heterogeneous kerogen derived from terrigenous higher land plant material. The main activation energies range of two selected coal samples (S24 and S27) are located at 49–52 kcal/mol accounting each for only 15% of the total bulk reaction. Assuming a 3 °C/My geologic heating rate, calculated onset temperatures for the generated hydrocarbon at transformation ration, TR = 10% were 105–120 °C for the two samples. The end of hydrocarbon generation at approximately TR = 95% is expected to occur at temperatures around 170 °C and above. MSSV pyrolysis gas chromatography affirms the existence of high wax paraffinic kerogen type–III–II with some marine input for one end member sample (S24). The 4-component compositional kinetic model indicates that the maximum generation of different petroleum components of sample S24 is predicted at lower values of temperature and vitrinite reflectance if compared with sample S27. The other end member of sample (S27) is more typically humic coal-like with type-III kerogen generating mostly gas and condensate.

Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering