While more than a decade has passed since the introduction of nanozymes, this new and upcoming field has become an essential focus for research activity. Multiple studies in recent years have immensely contributed towards technological advancements of artificial enzyme-based biosensors for detecting various clinical biomarkers. These recent progressions towards advanced biomarker sensing promise to address the limitations posed by conventional testing methods that are time-consuming and expensive. However, despite the current advancements, this field is still relatively unexplored and thus poses several questions that remain unanswered. This article aims to present the recent key advances in nanozyme based biosensors and the existing challenges that need to be overcome for such biosensing options. We highlight the recent studies on synthetic enzyme-based biosensors to detect different clinical biomarkers. Subsequently, we cover the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available nanozyme based biosensors. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the future perspectives of this technology in detecting clinical biomarkers.