An Integrated Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel by Harmal Extracts


The corrosion inhibition effect of the three extracts from Harmal roots (HRE), leaves (HLE), and flowers (HFE) were studied for carbon steel corrosion inhibition in 0.25 M H2SO4 solution. The electrochemical impedance study indicated that the three types of extracts decreased corrosion effectively through a charge transfer mechanism. Harmal roots and leaf extracts showed inhibition values of 94.1% and 94.2%, while it was 88.7% for Harmal flower extract at the inhibitor concentration of 82.6 ppm. Potentiodynamic polarization data revealed that Harmal extracts acted through predominant cathodic type inhibition. Both the corrosion current density and corrosion rate decreased significantly in the presence of Harmal extracts compared to blank solution. The corrosion rate (mpy) value was 63.3, 86.1, and 180.7 for HRE, HLE, and HFE, respectively. The adsorption-free energy change ΔGads (kJ·mol−1) values calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm plots were for HRE (−35.08), HLE (−33.17), and HFE (−33.12). Thus, corrosion inhibition occurred due to the adsorption of Harmal extract on the carbon steel surface via the chemisorption mechanism. Moreover, a computational investigation using B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) basis set in both gaseous and aqueous phases was performed for the major alkaloids (1–8) present in the Harmal extract.