Chalcogenides are essential in the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel due to their narrow band gap energy. Hydrogen fuel could resolve future energy crises by substituting carbon fuels owing to zero-emission carbon-free gas and its eco-friendliness. The fabrication of different metal chalcogenide-based photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic water splitting have been summarized in this review. Different modifications of these chalcogenides, including coupling with another semiconductor, metal loading, and doping, are fabricated with different synthetic routes that can remarkably improve the photo-exciton separation and have been extensively investigated for photocatalytic hydrogen generation. In this direction, this review is undertaken to provide an overview of the enhanced photocatalytic performance of the binary and ternary chalcogenide heterostructures and their mechanisms for hydrogen production under irradiation of light.