Understanding and combating COVID-19 using the biology and chemistry of SARS-CoV-2


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from asymptomatic to severe, which could lead to fatality. Like other pathogenic viruses, the infection of SARS-CoV-2 relies on binding its spike glycoprotein to the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2). Molecular studies suggested that there is a high affinity between the spike glycoprotein and ACE 2 that might arise due to their hydrophobic interaction. This property is mainly responsible for making this virus highly infectious. Apart from this, the transmissibility of the virus, prolonged viability in certain circumstances, and rapid mutations also contributed to the current pandemic situation. Nanotechnology provides potential alternative solutions to combat COVID-19 with the development of i. nanomaterial-based COVID-19 detection technology, ii. nanomaterial-based disinfectants, iii. nanoparticle-based vaccines, and iv. nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Hence, this review provides diverse insight into understanding COVID-19.

Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering