Visible-light-responsive photocatalytic materials have a multitude of important applications, ranging from energy conversion and storage to industrial waste treatment. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and its variants exhibit high photocatalytic activity under irradiation by visible light as well as good stability and recyclability, which are desirable for all photocatalytic applications. MoS2-based materials have been widely applied in various fields such as wastewater treatment, environmental remediation, and organic transformation reactions because of their excellent physicochemical properties. The present review focuses on the fundamental properties of MoS2, recent developments and remaining challenges, and key strategies for tackling issues related to the utilization of MoS2in photocatalysis. The application of MoS2-based materials in visible-light-induced catalytic reactions for the treatment of diverse kinds of pollutants including industrial, environmental, pharmaceutical, and agricultural waste are also critically discussed. The review concludes by highlighting the prospects of MoS2for use in various established and emerging areas of photocatalysis.