Propolis is a bee product created from different resinous materials collected by stingless bees from various parts of plants, and mixed with their enzymatic saliva. Essentially, it is developed by stingless bees as antiseptic to protect their beehives from microbial diseases as well as from invaders. Owing to its rich bioactive compounds, including antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral agents, propolis has been utilized as an important remedy in traditional medicines since ancient times. In modern biomedicines, propolis has been regarded as a pharmaceutical property due to its physicochemical contents. Nowadays, the uses of propolis have been expanded in cosmetics, natural products, and health foods. Propolis has been known to have a large variety of organic compounds, aromatic acids, mineral elements, sugars, vitamins, etc. Organic compounds are categorized into the derivatives of flavonoid, phenolic, terpene, aromatic acid, hydrocarbon, and lignan. These chemical constituents and compositions, however, depend on the species of stingless bees, the botanical environment, and the geographical origin. Evidently, the biological property of propolis is associated with the diversity of its chemical compositions. With regards to these findings, it is essentia to understand the characteristics of propolis of different geographical origins and both its chemical compositions and therapeutic benefits. This chapter provides an overview of the chemical compositions, biological properties of propolis of different stingless bee species and its geographical origins, and recent advances in therapeutic and pharmacological research. In this respect, advanced biological research related to the chemical diversity of propolis is highlighted. These types of research are particularly useful in terms of standardization of propolis and therapeutic uses, allowing researchers to link a certain chemical type of propolis to a specific biological activity and to develop a practical guidance.